modified on 29 April 2011 at 08:38 ••• 470,153 views

AirOS 3.4

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AirOS Main Page


AirOS Main Page

Contents

AirOS v3.4 Introduction

The design goal of AirOS was simplicity and power. Unlike previous and current market-leading wireless or router operating systems that are complex and require a training investment, Ubiquiti set out to make an advanced operating system capable of powerful wireless and routing features, but was built upon a simple, clean, intuitive user interface foundation.

Our goal is to make AirOS simple enough for the operator, customer, or new technician to easily understand, configure, and deploy. At the same time, it is rapidly evolving towards a path of new powerful networking and wireless features strongly derived from customer interaction and feedback. Our goal is to make AirOs both the most advanced operating system on the market and the most intuitive, easy to deploy.

AirOS v3.4 Configuration Guide

This guide presents the detailed description of the AirOS operating system version 3.4 which is integrated into long-range embedded systems and wireless ISP (WISP) solutions provided by Ubiquiti Networks, Inc.

2.4GHz products
5GHz products


2.4 GHz (IEEE 802.11b/g) products:

3 GHz products (licensed bands):

5 GHz (IEEE 802.11a) products:

11n (IEEE 802.11n) products:

All the AirOS based devices support the following infrastructure operating modes:

All the AirOS based devices support the following network modes:

AirOS Quick Setup Guide describes the configuration steps for the subscriber station (wireless client - bridge) use case.

All the configuration settings accessible via web management interface are described in this document (device specific elements are described individually).

Note: the examples and pictures in this document represent NanoStation2/PowerStation5 graphical user interface which is consistent between all the AirOS based devices.

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Navigation

Configuration Management Menu

Each of the web management pages (listed below) contains parameters that affect a specific aspect of the device:

[Main] page displays current status of the device and the statistical information. There are useful network administration and monitoring tools available in Main page also (i.e. antenna alignment tool, speed test utility, site survey tool while operating in AP mode).

[Link Setup] page contains the controls for a wireless network configuration, while covering basic wireless settings which define operating mode, output power, associating details and data security options.

[Network] page covers the configuration of network operating mode, IP settings, packet filtering routines and network services (i.e. DHCP Server).

[Advanced] page settings are dedicated for more precise wireless interface control. It also includes antenna polarity, traffic shaping and QoS settings.

[Services] page covers the configuration of system management services (i.e. SNMP, NTP, System Log, Ping Watchdog and SSH/Telnet server).

[System] page contains controls for system maintenance routines, administrator account management, device customization, interface language, firmware upgrade and configuration backup.

[Content]

Main Page

Current Status of the AirOS powered device in Client mode
Current Status of the AirOS powered device in Access Point mode

The Main Page displays a summary of link status information, current values of basic configuration settings (depending on operating mode), network settings and traffic statistics of all the interfaces.

Network administration and monitoring utilities such as antenna alignment tool, ping and traceroute utilities, speed test tools are accessible via Main page also.

Status Reporting

Status Reporting in AP mode

Base Station SSID: The Name of the 802.11 Service Set (established by the Host Access Point) the device is connected to:

While operating in Station mode, displays the BSSID of the Access Point where the device has associated.
While operating in in Access Point mode, displays the BSSID of the wireless device itself.

AP MAC: displays the MAC address of the Access Point where the device has associated while operating in Station mode. MAC (Media Access Control) is unique HW identifier on each 802.11 radio. It consists of two parts:

An Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI)
Network Interface Controller (NIC) sequence.

The manufacturer list of a given MAC address is provided here: http://standards.ieee.org/regauth/oui/index.shtml

Signal Strength: displays the received wireless signal level (client-side) while operating in Station mode. The represented value coincides with the graphical bar. Use antenna alignment tool to adjust the device antenna to get better link with the wireless device. The antenna of the wireless client has to be adjusted to get the maximum signal strength. Signal Strength is measured in dBm (the Decibels referenced to 1 miliwatt). The conversion is defined as dBm=10log10(P/1mW). So, 0dBm would be 1mW and –72dBm would be .0000006mW. A signal strength of –85dBm or better is recommended for stable links.

TX Rate and RX Rate: displays the current 802.11 data transmission (TX) and data reception (RX) rate while operating in Station mode. Data rates at 1,2,5.5,11Mbps (802.11b) and 6,9,12,18,24,36,48,54Mbps,108Mbps (using 40MHz channel width, only available for some devices) (802.11g, 802.11a) are possible. Typically, the higher the signal, the higher the data rate and consequently the higher the data throughput. For the maximum data throughput (54Mbps) a –70dBm or better signal is required typically.

Frequency: This is the operating frequency of the 802.11 Service Set (hosted by AP) the client is connected to. Device uses this frequency to transmit and receive data. For 802.11a operation, the range of available frequencies are 5.1-5.9GHz, for NanoStation 3, 3400-3650MHz (licensed in the US) and for 802.11b/g operation, 2412-2472MHz. However, the valid frequency range will vary depending on local country regulations. For more information regarding frequency support please visit the compliance section of Ubiquiti Wiki.

Current Channel used by the device

Channel: This is the 802.11 channel number that corresponds to the operating frequency. Device uses the selected channel to transmit and receive data. More information is provided in the Link Setup section.

Current Antenna used by the device

Antenna: This shows which antenna option the AirOS device is using currently. Most of Ubiquiti devices have 3 antenna options: vertical, horizontal, and Adaptive Antenna Polarity (AAP) options. External antenna option is available on several models as well. More information is provided in the Advanced settings section.

Noise Floor: displays the current value of the noise level in dBm. Noise Floor is taken into account while evaluating the signal quality (Signal-to-Noise Ratio SNR, RSSI) while value mean depends on signal strength above the noise floor.

Security: This is the current security setting. "None" value is displayed if wireless security is disabled, WEP, WPA or WPA2 value is displayed if the corresponding wireless security method is used. More information is provided in the Link Setup section.

ACK Timeout: displays the current timeout value for ACK frames. ACK Timeout can be set manually or self-adjusted automatically. The ACK Timeout (Acknowledgement frame Timeout) specifies how long the AirOS device should wait for an acknowledgement from partner device confirming packet reception before concluding the packet must have been in error and requires resending. ACK Timeout is very important outdoor wireless performance parameter. More information is provided in the Advanced settings section.

Transmit CCQ: This is an index of which evaluates the wireless Client Connection Quality. It takes into account transmit errors, latency, and throughput while evaluating the ratio of successfully transmitted packets against the re-transmitted ones and taking into account current rate ratio against the highest specified rate. The level is based on a percentage value where 100% corresponds to a perfect link state.

QoS Status: displays the current QoS setting. Quality of Service (QoS) can be enabled to direct link speeds to better service particular customers and/or particular applications like VoIP and video which require greater consistency, stability, and lower latency performance.

Uptime: This is the running total of time the device has been running since last power up (hard-reboot) or software upgrade. The time is expressed in days, hours, minutes and seconds.

Date: indicates the current system date and time, expressed in the form “year-month-day hours:minutes:seconds”. Accurate system date and time is retrieved from the internet services using NTP (Network Time Protocol). System date and time will be set to inaccurate default values after each reboot cycle if NTP is not enabled as most of the AirOS based devices have no autonomous power system for the internal clock.

Current Status of LAN Cable

LAN cable: displays the current status of the Ethernet port connection. This can alert system operator-technician that LAN cable is not plugged into device and there is no active Ethernet connection.

Host Name: displays the customizable name (ID) of the AirOS based device. Host Name will be represented in popular Router Operating Systems registration screens and discovery tools.

LAN and WLAN MAC

LAN MAC: displays the MAC address of the AirOS device LAN (Ethernet) interface.

LAN IP Address: displays the current IP address of the LAN (Ethernet) interface.

LAN and WLAN IP Addresses

WLAN MAC: displays the MAC address of the AirOS device WLAN (Wireless) interface.

WLAN IP Address: displays the current IP address of the WLAN (Wireless) interface.

Note: LAN IP Address and WLAN IP Address displays the same value - current IP address of the virtual bridge interface, while the device is operating in Bridge mode.

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Statistics Reporting

LAN interface Statistics

LAN Statistics: section displays the detailed receive and transmit statistics (Bytes, Packets, Errors) of LAN (Ethernet) interface. This statistics represents the total amount of data and packets transferred between devices through the Ethernet interface either way.

Both unicast IP traffic (conversations between two hosts using HTTP, SMTP, SSH and other protocols) and broadcast traffic (while addressing all hosts in a given network range with a single destination IP address) is accounted.

As long as there is some network traffic being generated or passed through the LAN interface, Received and Transmitted Bytes and Packets value will go on increasing. Errors value represents the total number of transmitted and received packets for which an error occurred in the link layer. High value of the Errors may indicate network hardware faults or misconfiguration.

WLAN interface Statistics

WLAN Statistics: section displays the detailed receive and transmit statistics (Bytes, Packets, and ‘‘Errors’’) of the wireless interface.

This statistics represents the total amount of unicast and broadcast IP data transferred between devices through the wireless interface either way.

As long as there is some network traffic being generated or passed through the wireless interface, Received and Transmitted Bytes, Packets and Errors (if any) value will go on increasing.

PPP interface Statistics

PPP Statistics: section displays the IP address of the PPP interface and the detailed receive and transmit statistics (Bytes, Packets, Errors) of the PPP interface while AirOS based device operates in Router mode with the PPPoE option enabled.

IP address of the PPP interface will be displayed if it is obtained through the established PPPoE connection, otherwise "Not Connected" message will be displayed.

Activating the Reconnect button will initialize the PPPoE reconnection routine which should require system reboot sequence otherwise. This control should be used for troubleshooting purposes only when PPPoE tunnel is established but the IP connection is idle.

This statistics represents the total amount of unicast and broadcast IP data transferred between AirOS powered device and PPPoE server through the PPP tunnel either way.

As long as there is some network traffic being passed through the PPP tunnel, Received and Transmitted Bytes, Packets and Errors (if any) value will go on increasing.

Refer to the Network section for more information aboutPPPoE setup.

WLAN Errors Statistics

WLAN Errors: section displays the counters of 802.11 specific errors which were registered on wireless interface:

Rx invalid NWID value represents the number of packets received with a different NWID or ESSID - packets which were destined for another access point. It can help to detect configuration problems or identify the adjacent wireless network existence on the same frequency.
Rx Invalid Crypt value represents the number of transmitted and received packets which were encrypted with the wrong encryption key and failed the decryption routines. It can be used to detect invalid wireless security settings and encryption break attempts.
Rx Invalid Frag value represents the number of packets missed during transmission and reception. These packets were dropped due to re-assembling failure as some link layer fragments of the packet were lost.
Tx Excessive Retries value represents the number of packets which failed to be delivered to the destination. Undelivered packet are retransmitted a number of times before an error occurs.
Missed beacons value represents the number beacons (management packets sent at regular intervals by the Access Point) which were missed by the client. This can indicate that the wireless client is out of range.
Other errors value represents the total number of transmitted and received packets that were lost or discarded for other reasons.

The content of the Main page can be updated by using the Refresh button.

[Content]

Extra info

Extra Info Menu

Extra Info: displays the current device usage statistics and status of the system components in pop-up window:

Status of the Associated Stations

Show Stations: selection lists the stations which are connected to the device while operating in Access Point mode.

The following statistics for every station associated is represented in the station statistics window:
Station MAC of the station which is associated;
Signal (dBm) value represents the last received wireless signal level;
Noise (dBm) value displays the value of the noise level wireless signal was received;
Tx/Rx Rate value represents the data rates of the last transmitted and received packets;
Idle (sec) value represents the time (in seconds) since last packet was received from the particular station.
The information in the station statistics window can be updated using the Reload button. Window can be closed with the Close this window button.
Statistics of the Associated Station
Detailed information can be retrieved while selecting the particular MAC of the associated station:
Uptime value represents the running total of time the station is associated. The time is expressed in days, hours, minutes and seconds;
Signal Strength value represents the last received wireless signal level;
CCQ value represents the quality of the connection to the Station;
Tx/Rx Rate represents the data rates of the last transmitted and received packets;
Tx/Rx Packets value represents the total amount of packets transmitted to and received from the Station during the connection uptime;
Tx/Rx Packet Rate (packets per second) represents the mean value of the transmitted and received packet rate;
Bytes transmitted/received value represents the total amount of data (in bytes) transmitted and received during the connection;
Negotiated Rate/Last Signal (dBm) table values represent the received wireless signal level along with the all data rates of recently received packets. "N/A" value is represented as the Last Signal if no packets were received on that particular data rate.
The information in the statistic window is updated automatically. Window can be closed with the Close this window button.


Details of the connection with the associated Access Point

Show AP Info: selection opens the connection statistics window while operating in Station mode.

The following link statistics is provided:
MAC of the Access Point station is associated to;
Uptime value represents the running total of time the stations is associated to the AP. The time is expressed in days, hours, minutes and seconds;
Signal Strength value represents the last received wireless signal level;
CCQ value represents the quality of the connection to the AP;
Tx/Rx Rate represents the data rates of the last transmitted and received packets;
Tx/Rx Packets value represents the total amount of packets transmitted and received during the connection;
Tx/Rx Packet Rate (packets per second) represents the mean value of the transmitted and received packet rate;
Bytes transmitted/received value represents the total amount of data (in bytes) transmitted and received during the connection;
Negotiated Rate/Last Signal (dBm) table values represent the received wireless signal level along with the all data rates of recently received packets. "N/A" value is represented as the Last Signal if no packets were received on that particular data rate.
The information in the statistic window is updated automatically. Window can be closed with the Close this window button.


Status of the system ARP table

Show ARP Table: selection lists all the entries of the ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) table currently recorded on the device.

The list can be updated using the Reload button.
ARP is used to associate each IP address to the unique hardware address (MAC) the devices. It is important to have unique IP addresses for each MAC or else there will be ambiguous routes in the network.


Status of the throughput on LAN/WLAN/PPP interface

Show Throughput selection opens statistics window which continuously represents the current data traffic on the LAN, WLAN and PPP interfaces in both graphical and numerical form. The chart scale and throughput dimension (Bps, Kbps, Mbps) changes dynamically according to the mean throughput value.

The statistics is updated automatically. Throughput statistics can be updated manually using the Reload button.


System Log

Show Log selection opens system log window which lists all the registered system events.

All the entries in the system log will be deleted if the Clear button is activated. The System Log content is updated if Reload button is activated. Window can be closed with the Close this window button.
Message "Syslog is disabled, unable to show system messages" is displayed if the System Log is not enabled. System Log configuration description is provided in the Services section.


Current Status of the system routing tables

Show Routes: selection lists all the entries in the system routing table, while the device is operating in Router mode.

The list can be updated using the Reload button.
AirOS examines the destination IP address of each data packet traveling through the system and chooses the appropriate interface to forward the packet to. The system choice depends on static routing rules – entries, which are registered in system routing table. Static routes to specific hosts, networks or default gateway are set up automatically according to the IP configuration of all the AirOS interfaces.
AirOS IP configuration description is provided in the Link Setup section.


Current Status of the system bridge table

Show Bridge Table: selection lists all the entries in the system bridge table, while the device is operating in Bridge mode.

The list can be updated using the Reload button.
Bridge table shows to which bridge port the particular station is associated to - in other words from which interface (Ethernet or wireless ) the network device (defined by MAC address) is reachable to AirOS system while forwarding the packets to that port only (thus saving a lot of redundant copies and transmits).
Ageing timer shows ageing time for each address entry (in seconds) - after particular time out, not having seen a packet coming from a certain address, the bridge will delete that address from the Bridge Table.
Active Firewall entries in Bridge mode

Show Firewall selection lists active firewall entries in the FIREWALL chain of the standard ebtables filter table, while the device is operating in Bridge mode.

The list can be updated using the Reload button.
Active Firewall entries in Router mode
Active firewall entries in the FIREWALL chain of the standard iptables filter table are listed if the device is operating in Router mode.
The list can be updated using the Reload button.
IP and MAC level access control and packet filtering in AirOS is implemented using iptables (routing) and ebtables (bridging) firewall which protects the resources of a private network from outside threats by preventing unauthorized access and filtering specified types of network communication.
More information is provided in the Link Setup section.


Active Port Forward entries in Router mode

Show Port Forward selection lists active port forward entries in the PORTFORWARD chain of the standard iptables nat table, while the device is operating in Router mode.

The list can be updated using the Reload button.
Port Forwarding creates a transparent tunnel through a firewall/NAT, granting an access from the WAN side to the particular network service running on the LAN side.
Current Status of the DHCP leases

Show DHCP Leases selection shows the current status of the leased IP addresses by the device’s DHCP server. This option is available if DHCP Server is enabled while the device is operating in Router mode.

Interface name shows from which device interface DHCP client which has specified MAC Address is connected.
Remaining Lease time shows for how long the leased IP address will be valid and reserved for particular DHCP client.
The list can be updated using the Reload button.


More information is provided in the Link Setup section.

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Tools

Tools: provides network utilities in pop-up window:

Antenna alignment Tool

Align Antenna utility allows the installer to point and optimize the antenna in the direction of maximum link signal.

Selection of the Align Antenna tool will open new window with signal strength indicator. Window reloads every second displaying the signal strength of the last received packet.
The "RSSI Range" slider bar allows the range of the meter to be either increased or reduced. If the range is reduced, the color change will be more sensitive to signal fluctuations as RSSI Range slider actually changes an offset of the maximum indicator value thus the scale itself.
Align Antenna window can be closed with the Close this window button.
Wireless link throughput estimation

Speed Test: This utility allows for testing the connection speed to and from any reachable IP address on the AirOS device network. It should be used for the preliminary throughput estimation between two network devices. If both devices are powered by AirOS, the estimation is more precise, otherwise only rough estimation is provided while using ICMP packet exchange routines.

Remote system IP can be selected from the list which is generated automatically (Select destination IP) or can be specified manually.
Access credentials (administrator username - User and Password) of the remote system should be provided for the communication between two AirOS powered devices. This is required in order to establish TCP/IP based throughput test. ICMP throughput measurement routine will be initiated if the access credentials are incorrect or not supplied.
Remote WEB port of the AirOS powered devices should be specified in order to establish TCP/IP based throughput test (i.e. 443 port should be specified if HTTPS is enabled in the remote system). ICMP throughput measurement routine will be initiated if the WEB port of the remote system is incorrect.
Show advanced options control will enable additional Speed Test utility options. 4 options available for the traffic direction while estimating the throughput maximum:
* Estimate the incoming (Rx) throughput while selecting receive option;
* Estimate the outgoing (Tx) throughput while selecting transmit option;
* First estimate the incoming (Rx) and afterwards the outgoing (Tx) throughput while selecting option both;
* Estimate the incoming (Rx) and the outgoing (Tx) throughput at the same time while selecting option duplex.
Test Duration and Data amount settings specify the test execution time:
* throughput test will stop after the specified time frame (in seconds) if the Duration value is set;
* throughput test will stop after the specified volume of data (in bytes) if sent/received if the Data amount value is set;
* the test will stop after any of the criteria is met if both (Duration and Data amount) values are specified.
The test is started using the Run Test button.
Wireless link quality estimation with Network Ping utility

Ping: This utility will ping other devices on the network directly from the AirOS device.

Ping utility should be used for the preliminary link quality and packet latency estimation between two network devices using the ICMP packets.
Remote system IP can be selected from the list which is generated automatically (Select destination IP) or can be specified manually.
The size of the ICMP packets can be specified in the Packet size field. Estimation is done after the number of ICMP packets (specified in Packet count field) is transmitted/received.
Packet loss statistics and latency time evaluation is provided after the test is completed.
The test is started using the Start button.
Finding the route across the network with Traceroute utility

TraceRoute: Allows tracing the hops from the AirOS device to a selected outgoing IP address. It should be used for the finding the route taken by ICMP packets across the network to the Destination host.

Resolution of the IP addresses (symbolically rather than numerically) can be enabled by selecting the Resolve IP address option.
The test is started using the Start button.
Wireless Site Survey utility

Site Survey: utility will search for wireless networks in range on all the supported channels while device is operating in Access Point or Station mode. In Station mode channel list can be modified. Refer to the section Link Setup for the details on channel list customization.

Site Survey reports MAC Address, ‘‘ESSID’’, Encryption type (if any), Signal Strength (dBm), Frequency (GHz) and wireless channel of all the surrounding Access Points which can be found by the AirOs based device.
The Site Survey can be updated using the Scan button. Site Survey window can be closed with the Close this window button.

[Content]

Link Setup Page

Link Setup Page - PowerStation5

The Link Setup Page contains everything needed by the operator to setup the wireless part of the link. This includes regulatory requirements, channel and frequency settings, device mode, data rates, and wireless security.

Basic Wireless Settings

The general wireless settings, such as wireless device BSSID, country code, output power, 802.11 mode and data rates can be configured in this section.

Wireless Mode: specify the operating mode of the device. The mode depends on the network topology requirements. There are 4 operating modes supported in AirOS v3.4 software:

Station Basic Wireless Settings
1. Station: This is a client mode, which can connect to an AP.
It is common for a bridging application to an AP. In Station mode device acts as the Subscriber Station while connecting to the Access Point which is primary defined by the SSID and forwarding all the traffic to/from the network devices connected to the Ethernet interface.
The specifics of this mode is that Subscriber Station is using arpnat technique which may result lack of transparency while passing-through broadcast packets in bridge mode.
Station WDS Basic Wireless Settings
2. Station WDS: WDS stands for Wireless Distribution System. Station WDS should be used while connecting to the Access Point which is operating in WDS mode.
Station WDS mode enables packet forwarding at layer 2 level.
The benefit of Station WDS is improved performance and faster throughput. Station WDS - Bridge mode is fully transparent for all the Layer2 protocols.
Refer to the section Network Settings for detailed Bridge network mode configuration information.
Access Point Basic Wireless Settings
3. Access Point: This is an 802.11 Access Point


4. Access Point WDS: This is an 802.11 Access Point which allows for layer 2 bridging with Station WDS devices using the WDS protocol.
WDS allows you to bridge wireless traffic between devices which are operating in Access Point mode. Access Point is usually connected to a wired network (Ethernet LAN) allowing wireless connection to the wired network. By connecting Access Points to one another in an Extended Service Set using the WDS, distant Ethernets can be bridged into a single LAN.
Access Point WDS Basic Wireless Settings
It is very important that network loops should not be created with either WDS bridges or combinations of wired (Ethernet) connections and WDS bridges. Tree or Star shape network topology should be used in all WDS use-cases (i.e. if AP2 and AP3 are specified as the WDS peers of AP1, AP2 should not be specified as the WDS peer of AP3 and AP3 should not be specified as the WDS peer of AP2 in any case). Mesh and Ring network topologies are not supported by WDS and should be avoided in all the use cases.

Note: Station WDS and AP WDS mode uses the WDS protocol which is not defined as the standard thus compatibility issues between equipment from different vendors may arise.

WDS Peers: WDS Stations and/or WDS Access Points connected to the AirOS powered Access Point should be specified in this list in order to create a wireless network infrastructure - Wireless Distribution System (applicable for AP WDS mode only).

WDS Peers

Enter the MAC address of the paired WDS device in the WDS Peer entry field. One MAC address should be specified for Point-to-Point connection use case, up to six WDS Peers can be specified for Point-to-Multi-Point connection use case.

Auto option should be enabled in order to establish WDS connection between Access Points if WDS Peers are not specified (applicable for AP WDS mode only). If Auto option is enabled AirOS powered Access Point will choose WDS Peers (Access Points) according to the SSID setting. Access Point operating in WDS mode should have the same SSID as the WDS Peer in order to establish the connection automatically while Auto option is enabled. This configuration is also known as the repeater mode. AP WDS Auto option can not be selected if any type of WPA or WPA2 security is used as WPA requires different roles on AP configuration (authenticator or supplicant).

Note: Access Point operating in WDS mode and all the WDS Peers must operate on the same frequency channel and use the same channel spectrum width.

MAC Clone option makes the Station fully transparent while acting as the laptop or PC which is connected to the AirOS device LAN port (Ethernet interface). MAC of the client computer is cloned and copied on top of the AirOS device, so it can be made to connect to the same device and maintain any MAC ID security based privileges from the server.

MAC Cloning option (applicable for STA mode only) is effective for one and the only PC connected to the subscriber station’s LAN port as the station will authenticate and associate to the chosen Access Point using the MAC address of the PC.

SSID: Service Set Identifier used to identify your 802.11 wireless LAN should be specified while operating in Access Point mode. All the client devices within range will receive broadcast messages from the access point advertising this SSID.

ESSID

ESSID: – specify the ESSID of the Access Point which the AirOS should associate to while operating in Station or Station WDS mode. There can be several Access Points with the same ESSID. If the ESSID is set to "Any" the station will connect to any available AP.

Hide SSID control will disable advertising the SSID of the access point in broadcast messages to wireless stations. Unselected control will make SSID visible during network scans on the wireless stations. Control is available while operating in Access Point mode only.

Site Survey tool for the Access Point selection

The list of the available Access Points can be retrieved using the Select button (not applicable to Access Point mode). This control activates Site Survey tool which is used for the AP selection. Site Survey will search for the available wireless networks in range on all the supported channels and will allow you to select one for association. In case the selected network uses encryption, you’ll need to set security parameters in Wireless Security section. Select the Access Point from the list and click Select button for association.

Click Scan button to refresh the list of available wireless networks.

Close this window button closes Site Survey tool window.

Site Survey channel scan list can be modified using the Channel Scan List control.

Channel Scan list selection on Nanostation2

Channel Scan List: This will confine scanning only to the selected channels (applicable for Station and Station WDS mode only). The benefits of this are faster scanning as well as filtering out unwanted AP's in the results. Site Survey tool will look for the Access Points in selected channels only.

Channel Scan list selection on Powerstation5,country:USA
Channel Scan list selection on Powerstation5,country:Spain

Channel list management for the selected IEEE 802.11 mode and specified Channel Spectrum Width can be enabled by selecting the Enabled option. There are two ways to set the Channel Scan List - enumerating the required channels (separated by comma) in the input field or using the selection options in Channel Scan List window which is activated using the Edit button. Site Survey tool will look for the Access Points in selected channels only if the scan or site survey operation is performed in Station mode.

Lock to AP MAC: This allows the station to always maintain connection to a particular AP with a specific MAC (applicable for Station and Station WDS mode only). This is useful as sometimes there can be few identically named SSID's (AP's) with different MAC addresses. With AP lock on, the station will lock to MAC address and not roam between several Access Points with the same ESSID.

Country Code: Different countries will have different power levels and possible frequency selections. To ensure device operation follows regulatory compliance rules, please make sure to select your correct country where device will be used. The channel list, output power limits, IEEE 802.11 and Channel Spectrum Width modes will be tuned according to the regulations of the selected country. Additionally, please consult compliance guide for further explanation of international compliance requirements.

IEEE 802.11 mode selection on NanoStation2
IEEE 802.11 mode selection on PowerStation5

IEEE 802.11 Mode: This is the radio standard used for operation of your AirOS powered device. 802.11b is an older 2.4GHz mode while the 802.11g (2.4GHz) and 802.11a (5GHz) are newer standards based on faster Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) modulation. For more information, please consult 802.11 compliance guide.

  • Bullet2/2HP, LiteStation2, MiniStation, NanoStation2/loco2, PowerStation2, PicoStation2/2HP supported IEEE 802.11 modes:
B only – connect to an 802.11b only network.
B/G Mixed – connect to an 802.11b or 802.11g network (selected by default). This mode offers better compatibility.
G only – connect to an 802.11g only network.
  • Bullet5/HP, LiteStation5, NanoStation5/loco5, PowerStation5, PicoStation5, WispStation5 supported IEEE 802.11 modes:
A – connect to an 802.11a network (selected by default).
  • LiteStation-SR71 supported IEEE 802.11 modes:
11n – connect to an 802.11n network (selected by default). 802.11n is compatible with 802.11b or 802.11g modes.
Select the Channel Spectrum Width

Channel Spectrum Width: This is spectral width of the radio channel. Supported wireless channel spectrum widths:

5MHz – is the channel spectrum with the width of 5 MHz (known as Quarter-Rate mode).
10MHz – is the channel spectrum with the width of 10 MHz (known as Half-Rate mode).
20MHz – is the standard channel spectrum width (selected by default).
40MHz – the widest channel spectrum width required to connect to an 802.11a (or 3GHz frequency) network which supports Static Turbo feature (applicable for Bullet5/HP, LiteStation5, NanoStation5/loco5, PowerStation5, PicoStation5, WispStation5, NanoStation3 only).

Reducing spectral width provides 2 benefits and 1 drawback.

Benefit 1: It will increase the amount of non-overlapping channels. This can allow networks to scale better
Benefit 2: It will increase the PSD (power spectral Density) of the channel and enable the link distance to be increased
Drawback: It will reduce throughput proportional to the channel size reduction. So just as turbo mode (40MHz) increases possible speeds by 2x, half spectrum channel (10MHz), will decrease possible speeds by 2x.

Channel Shifting: option enables the special channels which have the frequency offset from the standard 802.11b/g and 802.11a channels. This is a proprietary Ubiquiti developed feature. While 802.11 networks have standard channels such as Channel 1 (2412MHz), Channel 2 (2417MHz), etc. Spaced every 5MHz apart, channel shifting will allow operation of new non-802.11 channels offset from the standard channels. All the channels can be shifted by 5 MHz (in 802.11a mode and 3GHz) or 2 MHz (in 802.11b/g/b+g mode) from the default central channel frequency.

The benefits of this are private networking and inherent security. Using channel-shifting, networks can instantly become invisible to the millions of Wi-Fi devices in the world.

Select a Wireless Channel on NanoStation2
Select a Wireless Channel on PowerStation5

Channel: select the wireless channel while operating in Access Point mode. Multiple frequency channels are available to avoid interference between nearby access points. The channel list varies depending on the selected country code, IEEE 802.11 mode and Channel Spectrum Width and Channel Shifting option.

Output power and Obey regulatory power

Output Power: This will configure the maximum average transmit output power (in dBm) of the wireless device. The output power at which wireless module transmits data can be specified using the slider. When entering output power value manually, the slider position will change according to the entered value. The transmit power level maximum is limited according to the country regulations. If the AirOS based device has an internal antenna (i.e. NanoStation), Output Power is the output power delivered to the internal antenna.

Obey regulatory power option must remain enabled while it will force the transmit output power to be compliant with the regulations of the selected country. In this case it will not be possible to set equivalent isotropic radiated power (EIRP) above the amount allowed per regulatory domain (different maximum output power levels and antenna gains are allowed for each IEEE 802.11a/b/g regulatory domain thus country). For more regulatory information please consult 802.11 compliance guide.

Data rate and Auto

Data Rate: This defines the data rate (in Mbps) at which the device should transmit wireless packets. If the Auto check box is enabled, then the rate algorithm will select the best data rate depending on the link quality conditions. If a data rate below 54Mbps is selected while the Auto rate selection is enabled, then the selected data rate will become the maximum data rate that can be used. Use Auto option if you are having trouble getting connected or losing data at a higher rate. In this case the lower data rates will be used by device automatically. If you select 40MHz Channel Spectrum width the maximum data rate is 108Mbps.

Refer to the section Advanced Wireless Settings for the detailed information about rate algorithms.

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Wireless Security

This section enables you to set parameters that control how the subscriber station associates to a wireless device and encrypts/decrypts data.

Wireless Security Settings

Choose the security method according to the Access Point security policy. Subscriber station should be authorized by Access Point in order to get access to the network and all the user data transferred between subscriber station and Access Point will be encrypted if the wireless security methods are used.

Security: AirOS supports WEP, WPA, and WPA2 security options. Select the security mode of your wireless network:

WEP – enable WEP encryption. WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) is based on the IEEE 802.11 standard and uses the RC4 encryption algorithm. Enabling WEP allows you to increase security by encrypting data being transferred over your wireless network. WEP is the oldest security algorithm, and there are few applications that can decrypt the WEP key in less than 10 minutes. WPA™/WPA2™ security methods should be used when possible.
WPA – enable WPA™ security mode. Wi-Fi Protected Access - WPA™ (IEEE 802.11i/D3.0) and WPA2™ (IEEE 802.11i) with pre-shared key management protocol offers improved security methods as they are new protocols that were created under the 802.11i standard to address weaknesses in the WEP approach.

WPA™ and WPA2™ support the following ciphers for data encryption:

TKIP - Temporal Key Integrity Protocol which uses RC4 encryption algorithm.
CCMP (commonly known as AES) - Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol which uses the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm.

The device will use the strongest cipher (CCMP) in Station and Access Point wireless mode by default. If CCMP is not supported on the other side of the link the TKIP encryption will be used - like in situation when the device acts as Access Point with WPA security enabled and at least one wireless station (without CCMP support) is connected to it.

WPA – enable WPA™ security mode.
WPA-TKIP – enable WPA™ security mode with TKIP support only.
WPA-AES – enable WPA™ security mode with AES support only.
WPA2 – enable WPA2™ security mode.
WPA2-TKIP – enable WPA2™ security mode with TKIP support only.
WPA2-AES – enable WPA2™ security mode with AES support only.
WEP security

Authentication Type: field relates only to the WEP security option. One of the following authentication modes should be selected if WEP security method is used:

Open Authentication – station is authenticated automatically by AP (selected by default).
Shared Authentication – station is authenticated after the challenge, generated by AP.

WEP Key Length: 64-bit (selected by default) or 128-bit WEP Key length should be selected if WEP security method is used. The 128-bit option will provide a bit higher level of wireless security.

Key Type: HEX (selected by default) or ASCII option specifies the character format for the WEP key if WEP security method is used.

WEP Key: WEP encryption key for the wireless traffic encryption and decryption should be specified if WEP security method is used:

For 64-bit – specify WEP key as 10 HEX (0-9, A-F or a-f) characters (e.g. 00112233AA) or 5 ASCII characters.
For 128-bit – specify WEP key as 26 HEX (0-9, A-F or a-f) characters (e.g. 00112233445566778899AABBCC) or 13 ASCII characters.

Key Index: allows to specify the Index of the WEP Key used. 4 different WEP keys can be configured at the same time, but only one is used. Effective key is set with a choice of 1, 2, 3 or 4.

WPA/WPA2 PSK security

WPA Authentication: one of the following WPA™ key selection methods should be specified if WPA™ or WPA2™ security method is used (applicable for Station and Station WDS modes only). :

PSK – WPA™ or WPA2™ with Pre-shared Key method (selected by default).
EAP – WPA™ or WPA2™ with EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) IEEE 802.1x authentication method. This method is commonly used in Enterprise networks. Note: AirOS Web Management GUI supports only EAP-TTLS authentication method.

WPA Pre-shared Key: the pass phrase for WPA™ or WPA2™ security method should be specified if the Pre-shared Key method is selected. The pre-shared key may be entered as a passphrase of 8 to 63 printable ASCII characters.

WPA/WPA2 EAP security

WPA Identity: identification credential (also known as identity) used by the supplicant for EAP authentication (applicable for STA and STA WDS modes only).

WPA User Name: identification credential (also known as anonymous identity) used by the supplicant for EAP tunneled authentication (EAP-TTLS) in unencrypted form (applicable for STA and STA WDS modes only).

WPA User Password: password credential used by the supplicant for EAP authentication (applicable for STA and STA WDS modes only).

MAC Address Control List

MAC ACL: MAC Access Control List (ACL) provides ability to allow or deny certain clients to connect to the AP (applicable for AP and AP WDS modes only).

MAC ACL can be enabled by selecting the Enabled option.

There are two ways to set the Access Control List:

define certain wireless clients in the list which will have granted access to the Access Point while the access will be denied for all the remaining clients - MAC ACL Policy is set to Allow'.
define certain wireless clients in the list which will have denied access to the Access Point while the access will be granted for all the remaining clients - MAC ACL Policy is set to Deny.

The MAC addresses of the wireless clients can be added and removed to the list using the Add and Remove buttons.

Note: MAC Access Control is the weakest security approach. WPA™ or WPA2™ security methods should be used when possible.

Click Change button to save the changes.

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Network

The Network Page allows the administrator to setup bridge or routing functionality.

AirOS powered devices can operate in bridge or router mode. The IP configuration as described below is required for device management purposes. IP addresses can either be retrieved from a DHCP server or configured manually. Use the Network menu to configure the IP settings.

AirOS Network Mode selection

Network Mode: specify the operating network mode for the device. There are two modes: bridge and router.

The mode depends on the network topology requirements:

Bridge operating mode is selected by default as it is widely used by the subscriber stations, while connecting to Access Point or using WDS. In this mode the device will act as a transparent bridge and will operate in Layer 2. There will be no network segmentation while broadcast domain will be the same. Bridge mode will not block any broadcast or multicast traffic. Additional Firewall settings can be configured for Layer 2 packet filtering and access control in Bridge mode.
Router operating mode can be configured in order to operate in Layer 3 to perform routing and enable network segmentation – wireless clients will be on different IP subnet. Router mode will block broadcasts while it is not transparent.
AirOS supports Multicast packet pass-through in Router mode.
AirOS powered Router can act as DHCP server and use Network Address Translation (Masquerading) feature which is widely used by the Access Points. NAT will act as the firewall between LAN and WLAN networks. Additional Firewall settings can be configured for Layer 3 packet filtering and access control in Router mode.
Disable Network

Disable Network: options can be used for disabling WLAN or LAN interface. This setting should be used with the exclusive care as no L2 or L3 connection can be established through the disabled interface. It will be impossible to access the AirOS based device from the wireless/wired network which is connected to the disabled interface.

Bridge Mode

Bridge mode Network Settings

In bridge mode the AirOS based device forwards all the network management and data packets from one network interface to the other without any intelligent routing. For simple applications this provides efficient and fully transparent network solution. WLAN (wireless) and LAN (Ethernet) interfaces belong to the same network segment which has the same IP address space. WLAN and LAN interfaces form the virtual bridge interface while acting as the bridge ports. The bridge has assigned IP settings for management purposes:

Bridge IP Address: The device can be set for static IP or can be set to obtain an IP address from the DHCP server it is connected to.

One of the IP assignment modes must be selected:

DHCP – choose this option to assign the dynamic IP address, Gateway and DNS address by the local DHCP server.
Static – choose this option to assign the static IP settings for the bridge interface.

IP Address: enter the IP address of the device while Static Bridge IP Address mode is selected. This IP will be used for the AirOS device management purposes.

Bridge IP Address assigned manually (Static)

IP Address and Netmask settings should consist with the address space of the network segment where AirOS device resides. If the device IP settings and administrator PC (which is connected to the device in wired or wireless way) IP settings will use different address space, the AirOS device will become unreachable.

Netmask: This is a value which when expanded into binary provides a mapping to define which portions of IP address groups can be classified as host devices and network devices. Netmask defines the address space of the network segment where AirOS device resides. 255.255.255.0 (or /24) Netmask is commonly used among many C Class IP networks.

Gateway IP: Typically, this is the IP address of the host router which provides the point of connection to the internet. This can be a DSL modem, Cable modem, or a WISP gateway router. AirOS device will direct the packets of data to the gateway if the destination host is not within the local network.

Gateway IP address should be from the same address space (on the same network segment) as the AirOS device.

Primary/Secondary DNS IP: The Domain Name System (DNS) is an internet "phone book" which translates domain names to IP addresses. These fields identify the server IP addresses of where the AirOS device looks for the translation source.

Primary DNS server IP address should be specified for the device management purposes.

Secondary DNS server IP address is optional. It is used as the fail-over in case the primary DNS server will become unresponsive.

Bridge IP Address assigned automatically DHCP with IP fallback

DHCP Fallback IP: In case the Bridge is placed in Dynamic IP Address mode (DHCP) and is unable to obtain an IP address from a valid DHCP server, it will fall back to the static IP address listed here.

In case the IP settings of the AirOS powered device are unknown, they can be retrieved with the help of the [UBNT_Discovery_Utility Ubiquiti Discovery Utility]. Multi-platform Utility should be started on the administrator PC which resides on the same network segment as the AirOS device.

AirOS system will return to the default IP configuration (192.168.1.20/255.255.255.0) If the Reset to defaults routine is initiated.

Spanning Tree Protocol: Multiple interconnected bridges create larger networks using the IEEE 802.1d Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), which is used for finding the shortest path within network and to eliminate loops from the topology.

Spanning Tree Protocol enabled

If the STP is turned on, the AirOS Bridge will communicate with other network devices by sending and receiving Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDU). STP should be turned off (selected by default) when the AirOS device is the only bridge on the LAN or when there are no loops in the topology as there is no sense for the bridge to participate in the Spanning Tree Protocol in this case.


Firewall functionality on bridge interface can be enabled using the "Enable Firewall" option. Bridge Firewall rules can be configured, enabled or disabled while using Firewall configuration window which is opened with the "Configure" button.

Bridge mode Firewall Configuration Settings

Firewall entries can be specified by using the following criteria:

Interface the interface (WLAN or LAN) where filtering of the incoming/passing-through packets is processed;
IP Type sets which particular L3 protocol type (IP, ICMP, TCP, UDP) should be filtered;
Source IP/mask is the source IP of the packet (specified within the packet header), usually it is the IP of the host system which sends the packets;
Source Port is the source port of the TCP/UDP packet (specified within the packet header), usually it is the port of the host system application which sends the packets;
Destination IP/mask is the destination IP of the packet (specified within the packet header), usually it is the IP of the system which the packet is addressed to;
Destination Port is the destination port of the TCP/UDP packet (specified within the packet header), usually it is the port of the host system application which the packet is addressed to.
Comments is the informal field for the comment of the particular firewall entry. Few words about the particular firewall entry purpose are saved there usually.

On flag enables or disables the effect of the particular firewall entry. All the added firewall entries are saved in system configuration file, however only the enabled firewall entries will be active during the AirOS system operation.

Not operators can be used for inverting the Source IP/mask, Source Port, Destination IP/mask and Destination Port filtering criteria (i.e. if not is enabled for the specified Destination Port value 443, the filtering criteria will be applied to all the the packets sent to any Destination Port except the 443 which is commonly used by HTTPS).

Newly added Firewall entries can be saved by activating Save button or discarded by activating Cancel button in the Firewall configuration window.

All the active firewall entries are stored in the FIREWALL chain of the ebtables filter table, while the device is operating in Bridge mode. Please refer to the ebtables manual for detailed description of the firewall functionality in Bridge mode.

The list can be updated using the Reload button.

Click Change button to save the changes made in the Network page.

Router Mode

Network - Router mode

The role of the LAN and WLAN interface will change accordingly to the Wireless Mode while the AirOS powered device is operating in Router mode:

  • Wireless interface and all the wireless clients connected are considered as the internal LAN and the Ethernet interface is dedicated for the connection to the external network while the AirOS powered device is operating in AP/AP WDS wireless mode;
  • Wireless interface and all the wireless clients connected is considered as the external network and the all the network devices on LAN side as well as the Ethernet interface itself is considered as the internal network while the AirOS powered device is operating in Station/Station WDS mode.

Wireless/wired clients are routed from the internal network to the external one by default. Network Address Translation (NAT) functionality works the same way.

WLAN Network Settings

IP Address: This is the IP addresses to be represented by the WLAN interface which is connected to the internal network according to the wireless operation mode described above. This IP will be used for the routing of the internal network (it will be the Gateway IP for all the devices connected on the internal network). This is the IP address can be used for the management purpose of the AirOS powered device.

Auto IP Aliasing configures automatically generated IP Address for the corresponding WLAN/LAN interface if enabled. Generated IP address is the unique Class B IP address from the 169.254.X.Y range (Netmask 255.255.0.0) which are intended for use within the same network segment only. Auto IP always starts with 169.254.X.Y while X and Y are last 2 digits from device MAC address (i.e. if the MAC is 00:15:6D:A3:04:FB, Generated unique Auto IP will be 169.254.4.251).

Netmask: This is used to define the device IP classification for the chosen IP address range. 255.255.255.0 is a typical netmask value for Class C networks, which support IP address range 192.0.0.x to 223.255.255.x. Class C network Netmask uses 24 bits to identify the network (alternative notation "/24") and 8 bits to identity the host.

IP Aliases

IP Aliases for internal and external network interface can be configured. IP Aliases can be specified using the IP Aliases configuration window which is opened while activating the "Configure" button.

IP Address is the alternative IP address for the LAN or WLAN interface, which can be used for the routing or device management purposes;
Netmask is the network address space identifier for the particular IP Alias;
Comments is the informal field for the comment of the particular IP Alias. Few words about the alias purpose are saved there usually;
Enabled flag enables or disables the particular IP Alias. All the added IP Aliases are saved in system configuration file, however only the enabled IP Aliases will be active during the AirOS system operation.

Newly added IP Aliases can be saved by activating Save button or discarded by activating Cancel button in the Aliases configuration window.

Enable NAT and DHCP Server

Enable NAT: Network Address Translation (NAT) enables packets to be sent from the wired network (LAN) to the wireless interface IP address and then sub-routed to other client devices residing on it's local network while the AirOS powered device is operating in AP/AP WDS wireless mode and in the contrariwise direction in "Station/Station WDS" mode.

NAT is implemented using the masquerade type firewall rules. NAT firewall entries are stored in the iptables nat table, while the device is operating in Router mode. Please refer to the iptables tutorial for detailed description of the NAT functionality in Router mode.

Static routes should be specified in order the packets should pass-through the AirOs based device if the NAT is disabled in while operating in Router network mode.

Enable DHCP Server: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Server assigns IP addresses to clients which will associate to the wireless interface while the AirOS powered device is operating in AP/AP WDS wireless mode and assigns IP addresses to clients which will connect to the LAN interface while the AirOS powered device is operating in Station/Station WDS mode.

DHCP Server range and lease time

Range Start/End: This range determines the IP addresses given out by the DHCP server to client devices on the internal network which use dynamic IP configuration.

Netmask: This is used to define the device IP classification for the chosen IP address range. 255.255.255.0 is a typical netmask value for Class C networks, which support IP address range 192.0.0.x to 223.255.255.x. Class C network Netmask uses 24 bits to identify the network (alternative notation "/24") and 8 bits to identity the host.

Lease Time: The IP addresses given out by the DHCP server will only be valid for the duration specified by the lease time. Increasing the time ensure client operation without interrupt, but could introduce potential conflicts. Lowering the lease time will avoid potential address conflicts, but might cause more slight interruptions to the client while it will acquire new IP addresses from the DHCP server.

DNS Proxy: The DNS Proxy forwards the Domain Name System requests from the hosts which reside in the internal network to the DNS server while AirOS powered device is in operating in Router mode. Valid Primary DNS Server IP needs to be specified for DNS Proxy functionality. Internal network interface IP of the AirOS powered device should be specified as the DNS server in the host configuration in order DNS Proxy should be able to get the DNS requests and translate domain names to IP addresses afterwards.


Port Forwarding: Port forwarding allows specific ports of the hosts residing in the internal network to be forwarded to the external network. This is useful for number of applications such as FTP servers, gaming, etc. where different host systems need to be seen using a single common IP address/port.

Port Forwarding example

Port Forwarding rules can be set in Port Forwarding window, which is opened by enabling the Port Forwarding option and activating the Configure button.

Port Forwarding entries can be specified by using the following criteria:

Private IP is the IP of the host which is connected to the internal network and needs to be accessible from the external network;
Private Port is the TCP/UDP port of the application running on the host which is connected to the internal network. The specified port will be accessible from the external network;
Type is the L3 protocol (IP) type which need to be forwarded from the internal network.
Public Port is the TCP/UDP port of the AirOS based device which will accept and forward the connections from the external network to the host connected to the internal network.
Comments is the informal field for the comment of the particular port forwarding entry. Few words about the particular port forwarding entry purpose are saved there usually.
Enabled flag enables or disables the effect of the particular port forwarding entry. All the added firewall entries are saved in system configuration file, however only the enabled port forwarding entries will be active during the AirOS system operation.

Newly added port forwarding entries can be saved by activating Save button or discarded by activating Cancel button in the Port Forwarding configuration window.


LAN Network Settings

LAN IP Address: This is the IP addresses to be represented by the LAN or WLAN interface which is connected to the external network according to the wireless operation mode described above. This is the IP address can be used for the routing and the device management purposes.

The external network interface can be set for static IP or can be set to obtain an IP address from the DHCP server which should reside in the external network. One of the IP assignment modes must be selected for the external network interface:

DHCP – choose this option to obtain the IP address, Gateway and DNS address dynamically from the external DHCP server.
PPPoE – choose this option to obtain the IP address, Gateway and DNS address dynamically from the external PPPoE server.
Static – choose this option to assign the static IP settings for the external interface.
LAN IP Address assigned manually - Static

IP Address and Netmask settings should consist with the address space of the network segment where AirOS device resides. If the device IP settings and administrator PC (which is connected to the device in wired or wireless way) IP settings will use different address space, the AirOS device will become unreachable.

Netmask: This is used to define the device IP classification for the chosen IP address range. 255.255.255.0 is a typical netmask value for Class C networks, which support IP address range 192.0.0.x to 223.255.255.x. Class C network Netmask uses 24 bits to identify the network (alternative notation "/24") and 8 bits to identity the host.

Gateway IP: is the IP address of the host router which resides on the external network and provides the point of connection to the next hop towards the internet. This can be a DSL modem, Cable modem, or a WISP gateway router. AirOS device will direct all the packets to the gateway if the destination host is not within the local network.

Gateway IP address should be from the same address space (on the same network segment) as the AirOS device's external network interface (Wireless interface in the Station case and the LAN interface in the AP case).

Primary/Secondary DNS IP: The Domain Name System (DNS) is an internet "phone book" which translates domain names to IP addresses. These fields identify the server IP addresses where the DNS requests are forwarded by the AirOS powered device.

Primary DNS server IP is mandatory. It is used by the DNS Proxy and for the device management purpose.

Secondary DNS server IP address is optional. It is used as the fail-over in case the primary DNS server will become unresponsive.

PPPoE Internet connection (usually used by ADSL providers)

PPPoE: Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) is a virtual private and secure connection between two systems which enables encapsulated data transport. It is commonly used as the medium for subscribers to connect to Internet Service Providers.

Select the IP Address option PPPoE to configure a PPPoE tunnel in order to connect to an ISP. Only the external network interface can be configured as PPPoE client as all the traffic will be sent via this tunnel. The IP address, Default gateway IP and DNS server IP address will be obtained from the PPPoE server after PPPoE connection is established. Broadcast address is used for the PPPoE server discovery and tunnel establishment.

Valid authorization credentials are required for the PPPoE connection:

PPPoE Username – username to connect to the server (must match the configured on the PPPoE server);
Password – password to connect to the server (must match the configured on the PPPoE server);
PPPoE MTU/MRU – the size (in bytes) of the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) and Maximum Receive Unit (MRU) used for the data encapsulation while transferring it through the PPP tunnel;
PPPoE Encryption – enables the use of MPPE encryption.

IP address of the PPP interface will be displayed in the Main page next to the PPP interface statistics if it is obtained through the established PPPoE connection, otherwise "Not Connected" message will be displayed.

PPPoE tunnel reconnection routine can be initiated using the Reconnect button which is located in the Main page next to the PPP interface statistics.

Enable DMZ: The Demilitarized zone (DMZ) can be enabled and used as a place where services can be placed such as Web Servers, Proxy Servers, and E-mail Servers such that these services can still serve the local network and are at the same time isolated from it for additional security. DMZ is commonly used with the NAT functionality as an alternative for the Port Forwarding while makes all the ports of the host network device be visible from the external network side.

DMZ configuration

DMZ Management Port: Web Management Port for the AirOS based device (TCP/IP port 80 by default) will be used for the host device if DMZ Management Port option is enabled. In this case AirOS device will respond to the requests from the external network as if it was the host which is specified with DMZ IP. It is recommended to leave Management Port disabled while the AirOS based device will become inaccessible from the external network if enabled.

DMZ IP: connected to the internal network host, specified with the DMZ IP address will be accessible from the external network.

LAN IP Address assigned via DHCP with IP fallback

DHCP Fallback IP: In case the external network interface of the Router is placed in Dynamic IP Address mode (DHCP) and is unable to obtain an IP address from a valid DHCP server, it will fall back to the static IP address listed here.

In case the IP settings of the AirOS powered device are unknown, they can be retrieved with the help of the [UBNT_Discovery_Utility Ubiquiti Discovery Utility]. Multi-platform Utility should be started on the administrator PC which resides on the same network segment as the AirOS device.

AirOS system will return to the default IP configuration (192.168.1.20/255.255.255.0) If the Reset to defaults routine is initiated.

Multicast Routing Settings

With a multicast design, applications can send one copy of each packet and address it to the group of computers that want to receive it. This technique addresses packets to a group of receivers rather than to a single receiver. It depends on the network to forward the packets to the hosts which need to receive them. Common Routers isolate all the broadcast (thus multicast) traffic between the internal and external networks, however AirOS provides the multicast traffic pass-through functionality.

Multicast routing enabled

Enable Mcast Routing option enables the multicast packets pass-through between internal and external networks while device is operating in Router mode. Multicast intercommunication is based on Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP).

Firewall Settings

Firewall functionality on any router interface can be enabled using the "Enable Firewall" option. Router Firewall rules can be configured, enabled or disabled while using Firewall configuration window which is opened with the "Configure" button.

Firewall Configuration Settings

Firewall entries can be specified by using the following criteria:

Interface the interface (WLAN, LAN or PPP) where filtering of the incoming/passing-through packets is processed;
IP Type sets which particular L3 protocol type (IP, ICMP, TCP, UDP, P2P) should be filtered;
Source IP/mask is the source IP of the packet (specified within the packet header), usually it is the IP of the host system which sends the packets;
Source Port is the source port of the TCP/UDP packet (specified within the packet header), usually it is the port of the host system application which sends the packets;
Destination IP/mask is the destination IP of the packet (specified within the packet header), usually it is the IP of the system which the packet is addressed to;
Destination Port is the destination port of the TCP/UDP packet (specified within the packet header), usually it is the port of the host system application which the packet is addressed to.
Comments is the informal field for the comment of the particular firewall entry. Few words about the particular firewall entry purpose are saved there usually.
On flag enables or disables the effect of the particular firewall entry. All the added firewall entries are saved in system configuration file, however only the enabled firewall entries will be active during the AirOS system operation.
Not operators can be used for inverting the Source IP/mask, Source Port, Destination IP/mask and Destination Port filtering criteria (i.e. if not is enabled for the specified Destination Port value 443, the filtering criteria will be applied to all the packets sent to any Destination Port except the 443 which is commonly used by HTTPS).

Newly added Firewall entries can be saved by activating Save button or discarded by activating Cancel button in the Firewall configuration window.

All the active firewall entries are stored in the FIREWALL chain of the iptables filter table, while the device is operating in Router mode. Please refer to the iptables tutorial for detailed description of the firewall functionality in Router mode.


Click Change button to save the changes made in the Network page.

[Content]


Advanced

This page handles advanced routing and wireless settings. The Advanced options page allows you to manage advanced settings that influence on the device performance and behavior. The advanced wireless settings are dedicated for more technically advanced users who have a sufficient knowledge about wireless LAN technology. These settings should not be changed unless you know what effect the changes will have on your device.

Advanced Wireless Setting

Advanced Wireless Settings in NanoStation2

The 802.11 data rates include 1, 2, 5.5, 11 Mbps for IEEE 802.11b mode and 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54Mbps for IEEE 802.11a/g mode. The Rate Algorithm has a critical impact on performance in outdoor links as generally lower data rates are more immune to noise while higher rates are less immune, but are capable of higher throughput.

Rate Algorithm: defines data rate algorithm convergence:

Optimistic Algorithm is aggressive enough to move to a higher rate but yet tries to conservatively capture the fluctuations of the RSSI. It starts with the highest possible rate and then decreases till the rate can be supported while periodically transmitting packets at higher rates and computing the transmission time. The optimistic rate algorithm always looks to achieve highest throughput while sacrificing noise immunity and robustness.
Rate Algorithm selection
Conservative Algorithm is less sensitive to individual packet failure as it is based on a function of number of successful and erroneous transmission/retransmission over a sampling period. It steps down to a lower rate after continuous packet failure and steps up after number of successful packets. The conservative rate algorithm provides the best case stability / robustness, but may compromise maximum throughput. It is recommended to select conservative rate algorithm when the signal strength is low due to noisy environment or link distance.
EWMA Algorithm is trying to move to a higher rate but is continuously monitoring the packet failure counters. The Exponential Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) Algorithm (also known as minstrel) is a hybrid of the Conservative and Optimistic Algorithm. It is the compromise for most of the wireless network use cases.

Noise Immunity option increases the robustness of the device to operate in the presence of noise disturbance which is usually generated by external 802.11 traffic sources, channel hopping signals and other interferers.

RTS Threshold: determines the packet size of a transmission and, through the use of an access point, helps control traffic flow. The range is 0-2347bytes, or word “off”. The default value is 2347 which means that RTS is disabled.

RTS and Fragmentation Threshold

RTS/CTS (Request to Send / Clear to Send) is the mechanism used by the 802.11 wireless networking protocol to reduce frame collisions introduced by the hidden terminal problem. RTS/CTS packet size threshold is 0-2347 bytes. If the packet size the node wants to transmit is larger than the threshold, the RTS/CTS handshake gets triggered. If the packet size is equal to or less than threshold the data frame gets sent immediately.

System uses Request to Send/Clear to Send frames for the handshake which provide collision reduction for access point with hidden stations. The stations are sending a RTS frame first while data is send only after handshake with an AP is completed. Stations respond with the CTS frame to the RTS which provides clear media for the requesting station to send the data. CTS collision control management has time interval defined during which all the other stations hold off the transmission and wait until the requesting station will finish transmission.

Fragmentation Threshold: specifies the maximum size for a packet before data is fragmented into multiple packets. The range is 256-2346 bytes, or word “off”. Setting the Fragmentation Threshold too low may result in poor network performance.

The use of fragmentation can increase the reliability of frame transmissions. Because of sending smaller frames, collisions are much less likely to occur. However lower values of the Fragmentation Threshold will result lower throughput as well. Minor or no modifications of the Fragmentation Threshold value is recommended while default setting of 2346 is optimum in most of the wireless network use cases.

AirOS has an auto-acknowledgement timeout algorithm which dynamically optimizes the frame acknowledgement timeout value without user intervention. This is a critical feature required for stabilizing long-distance outdoor links. The user also has the ability to enter the value manually.

Distance and ACK Timeout

Distance: specify the distance value in miles (or kilometers) using slider or enter the value manually. The signal strength and throughput falls off with range. Changing the distance value will change the ACK Timeout to the appropriate value of the distance.

ACK Timeout: specify the ACK Timeout. Every time the station receives the data frame it sends an ACK frame to the AP (if transmission errors are absent). If the station receives no ACK frame from the AP within set timeout it re-sends the frame. The performance drops because of the too many data frames are re-send, thus if the timeout is set too short or too long, it will result poor connection and throughput performance.

Changing the ACK Timeout''== value will change the Distance to the appropriate distance value for the ACK Timeout.

Auto Adjust control will enable the ACK Timeout Self-Configuration feature. If enabled, ACK Timeout value will be derived dynamically using an algorithm similar to the Conservative Rate Algorithm described above. It is not recommended to use Auto Adjust option for long range links if the signal level is low or the high level of interference is present.

If two or more stations are located at the considerably different distance from the Access Point the are associated to, the highest ACK Timeout for the farthest station should be set at the AP side. It is not recommended to use Auto Adjust option for Point-to-Multipoint connections as it will not warrant highest network performance in all the use cases.

SuperAG on PowerStation5

SuperG® /SuperAG® Features: select the options to enable the chosen SuperG® (applicable for PowerStation2, LiteStation2) or SuperAG® (PowerStation5, LiteStation5) features which increase the network performance:

Fast Frame – utilizes 802.11 frame aggregation and timing modifications which increases the data throughput.
Bursting – more data frames per given time period are transmitted thus the data throughput is increased.
Compression – real-time hardware data compression is enabled which allows more data sent per frame.
Multicast Data and Rate

Multicast Data: This option allows the Multicast packet pass-through functionality. By default this option is disabled.

Multicast Rate: This option allows Multicast packets to be sent in higher rates (up to the 54 Mbps) than commonly used (1 Mbps at IEEE 802.11b mode, 6 Mbps at IEEE 802.11g/a mode). This is Ubiquiti's AirOS proprietary feature thus it may be incompatible with the devices from other vendors. Both AirOS based devices the sender (Station) and the receiver (Access Point) must have the same Multicast Rate configured in order to achieve better multicast packet throughput performance.

Enable Extra Reporting

Enable Extra Reporting: feature will report additional information (i.e. Host Name) in the 802.11 management frames. This information is commonly used for system identification and status reporting in discovery utilities and Router operating systems.

Enable DFS

Enable DFS: DFS is the part of the IEEE 802.11h wireless standard. Enable DFS option allows to enable/disable DFS support (applicable for Bullet5/5HP, LiteStation5, NanoStation5/loco5, PowerStation5, PicoStation5, WispStation5 only). DFS may be mandatory in some regulatory domains and should be tuned according to the regulations of the selected country. Please consult compliance guide and official regulations authorities for further explanation of compliance requirements for the country where AirOS based device is installed.

Enable Client Isolation

Enable Client Isolation: This option allows packets only to be sent from the external network to the CPE and vice verse (applicable for AP/AP WDS mode only). If the Client Isolation is enabled wireless stations connected to the same AP will not be able to interconnect on both layer 2 (MAC) and layer 3 (IP) level. This is effective for the associated stations and WDS peers also.

Antenna Settings

Antenna Polarity Configuration

AirOS based devices have a possibility to switch the antenna polarities with a single web management control. This is achieved by using Ubiquiti's patent-pending Adaptive Antenna Polarity (AAP) technology.

AirOS devices often have multiple antenna options which can be configured using the Antenna Settings:

Vertical and Horizontal antenna polarity which is the most common configuration;
Adaptive antenna mode chooses the best polarity dynamically. Adaptive antenna polarity mode which allows for the beam polarities to be switched dynamically on the fly for improved performance in heavy noise environments;
External antenna option allows a connection of the higher gain antenna to an external antenna port.
  • NanoStation2, NanoStation5 has 4 antenna modes:
1. Vertical Polarity;
2. Horizontal Polarity;
3. Adaptive;
4. External.
  • PowerStation5-Ext has 3 antenna modes:
1. Antenna 1;
2. Antenna 2;
3. Diversity.
  • PowerStation2-16D has 3 antenna modes:
1. Vertical Polarity;
2. Horizontal Polarity;
3. Adaptive;
  • Loco2, Loco5 has 2 antenna modes:
1. Vertical Polarity;
2. Horizontal Polarity;
  • MiniStation has 2 antenna modes:
1. Internal;
2. External.

Some AirOS devices (i.e. Bullet2/2HP, Bullet5/5HP, PicoStation 2/2HP, PicoStation 5, PowerStation2, PowerStation5) has only 1 antenna mode: Vertical, Horizontal or External. In this case Antenna Settings are not displayed in the Advanced page in this case.

LED Thresholds

LED Thresholds Configuration

The LED's on the back of the AirOS Device can be made to light on when received signal levels reach the values defined in the following fields. This allows a technician to easily deploy an AirOS CPE without logging into the unit (i.e. for antenna alignment operation).

Signal LED Thresholds specify the marginal value of Signal Strength (dBm) which will switch on LEDs indicating signal strength:

LED 1 (Red) will switch on if the Signal Strength reaches the value set in an entry field next to it.
LED 2 (Yellow) will switch on if the Signal Strength reaches the value set in an entry field next to it.
LED 3 (Green) will switch on if the Signal Strength reaches the value set in an entry field next to it.
LED 4 (Green) will switch on if the Signal Strength reaches the value set in an entry field next to it.

Configuration example: if the Signal Strength (displayed in the Main page) fluctuates around -63 dBm, the LED Thresholds can be set to the values -70, -65, -62, -60. Note: sign "-" character should not be used for the Signal Strength value specification.

Wireless Traffic Shaping

Wireless Traffic Shapping

Wireless Traffic shaping feature is dedicated for upstream and downstream bandwidth control while looking from the client (connected on Ethernet interface) perspective.

The traffic can be limited at the AirOS based device in the upload and download direction based on a user defined rate limit. This is layer 3 QoS.

Enable Traffic Shaping: control will enable bandwidth control on the device.

Incoming Traffic Limit: specify the maximum bandwidth value (in kilobits per second, Kbps) for traffic passing from wireless interface to Ethernet interface.

Incoming Traffic Burst: specify the data volume (in kilobytes) to which Incoming Traffic Limit will not be effective afterwards data connection is initiated.

Outgoing Traffic Limit: specify the maximum bandwidth value (in kilobits per second, Kbps) for traffic passing from Ethernet interface to wireless interface.

'Outgoing Traffic Burst: specify the data volume (in kilobytes) to which Outgoing Traffic Limit will not be effective afterwards data connection is initiated.

QoS

Quality of Service (WMM)

Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM) is a component of the IEEE 802.11e wireless LAN standard for quality of service (QoS). The QoS assigns priority to the selected network traffic, prevents packet collisions and delays thus improving VoIP calls and watching video over WLANs. 802.11e / WMM allows for improved latency performance for Voice and Video applications. This is layer 2 QoS and happens at 802.11 frame level.

QoS (WMM) Level: choose the type of the network traffic to which the priority will be set or disable the QoS feature.

No QoS – disable QoS.
Auto Priority – priority of traffic is assigned automatically according to the type of the passing through data.
Voice Priority – enable priority of the voice traffic for all the passing through data.
Video Priority – enable priority of the video traffic for all the passing through data.

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Services

This page covers the configuration of system management services SNMP and Ping Watchdog.

Services Page

Ping WatchDog

The ping watchdog sets the AirOS Device to continuously ping a user defined IP address (it can be the internet gateway for example). If it is unable to ping under the user defined constraints, the AirOS device will automatically reboot. This option creates a kind of "fail-proof" mechanism.

Ping Watchdog

Ping Watchdog is dedicated for continuous monitoring of the particular connection to remote host using the Ping tool. The Ping works by sending ICMP “echo request” packets to the target host and listening for ICMP “echo response” replies. If the defined number of replies is not received, the tool reboots the device.

Enable Ping Watchdog: control will enable Ping Watchdog Tool.
IP Address to Ping: specify an IP address of the target host which will be monitored by Ping Watchdog Tool.
Ping Interval: specify time interval (in seconds) between the ICMP “echo requests” are sent by the Ping Watchdog Tool.
Startup Delay: specify initial time delay (in seconds) until first ICMP “echo requests” are sent by the Ping Watchdog Tool.

The value of Startup Delay should be at least 60 seconds as the network interface and wireless connection initialization takes considerable amount of time if the device is rebooted.

Failure Count to Reboot: specify the number of ICMP “echo response” replies. If the specified number of ICMP “echo response” packets is not received continuously, the Ping Watchdog Tool will reboot the device.

SNMP Agent

SNMP Agent

Simple Network Monitor Protocol (SNMP) is used in network management systems to monitor network-attached devices for conditions that warrant administrative attention. AirOS contains an SNMP agent which allows it to communicate to SNMP manage applications for network provisioning.

SNMP Agent provides an interface for device monitoring using the Simple Network Management Protocol (an application layer protocol that facilitates the exchange of management information between network devices). SNMP Agent allows network administrators to monitor network performance, find and solve network problems. For the purpose of equipment identification, it is always a good idea to configure SNMP agents with contact and location information:


Enable SNMP Agent: control will enable SNMP Agent.
SNMP Community: specify SNMP community string. It is required to authenticate access to MIB objects and functions as embedded password. The device supports a Read-only community string that gives read access to authorized management stations to all the objects in the MIB except the community strings, but does not allow write access. AirOS supports SNMP v1.
Contact: specify the identity or the contact who should be contacted in case a emergency situation arise.
Location: specify the physical location of the device.

MIB list is provided in SNMP support section of Ubiquiti Wiki.

NTP Client

NTP Client

NTP Client: The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a protocol for synchronizing the clocks of computer systems over packet-switched, variable-latency data networks. It can be used to set the AirOS system time. System Time is reported next to the every System Log entry while registering system events if Log option is enabled.

Enable NTP Client: control will enable NTP client.
NTP Server: specify the IP address or domain name of the NTP Server.

Web Server

Web Server using HTTPS

Web Server: the following AirOS Device Web Server parameters can be set there:

Use Secure Connection (HTTPS): If checked Web server will use secure HTTPS mode. HTTPS mode is unchecked by default.
Secure Server Port: Web Server TCP/IP port setting while using HTTPS mode.
Server Port: Web Server TCP/IP port setting while using HTTP mode..

Telnet Server

Telnet Server

Telnet Server: the following AirOS Device Telnet Server parameters can be set there:

Enable Telnet Server: This option activates the Telnet access to the AirOS Device.
Server Port: Telnet service TCP/IP port setting.

SSH Server

SSH Server

SSH Server: the following AirOS Device SSH Server parameters can be set there:

Enable SSH Server: This option enables SSH access to the AirOS Device.
Server Port: SSH service TCP/IP port setting.


System Log

System Log
Enable Log : This option enables the registration routine of the system log messages.
Enable Remote Log: enables the syslog remote sending function while System log messages are sent to a remote server specified by the Remote Log IP Address and Remote Log Port.
Remote Log IP Address is the host IP address where syslog messages should be sent. Remote host should be configured properly to receive syslog protocol messages.
Remote Log Port: is the TCP/IP port of the host syslog messages should be sent. "514" is the default port for the commonly used system message logging utilities.

Every logged message contains at least a System Time and a Host Name. Usually a particular service name which generates the system event is specifies also within the message. Messages from different services have different context and different level of the details. Usually error, warning or informational system services messages are reported, however more detailed Debug level messages can be reported also. The more detailed system messages are reported, the greater volume of log messages will be generated.

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System

System Page


The System Page contains Administrative options. This page enables administrator to customize, reboot the device, set it to factory defaults, upload a new firmware, backup or update the configuration and configure administrator’s credentials.


Firmware

Firmware section

Use this section to find out current software version and update the device with the new firmware. The device firmware update is compatible with all configuration settings. System configurations are preserved while the device is updated with a new firmware version.

Firmware version: displays the version of the current firmware of the AirOS system.
Upgrade: button opens the Firmware Upload window if activated.
Firmware Upgrade
Current Firmware: displays the version of the AirOS firmware which is currently operating.
Firmware File: activate Browse button to navigate to and select the new firmware file. The full path to the new firmware file location can be specified there. New firmware file is transferred to the system after Upload button is activated.
Close this window – button cancels the new firmware upload process if activated.
Upgrade button should be activated in order to proceed with firmware upgrade routine (new firmware image should be uploaded into the system first). Please be patient, as the firmware upgrade routine can take 3-7 minutes. AirOS based device will be inaccessible until the firmware upgrade routine is completed.

Do not switch off, do not reboot and do not disconnect the device from the power supply during the firmware upgrade process as these actions will damage the device!

It is highly recommended to backup the system configuration and the Support Info file before uploading the new configuration.

Close this window – button closes the firmware upgrade window if activated. This action will not cancel the firmware upgrade process.

Host Name

Host Name

Host Name is the system wide device identifier. It is reported by SNMP Agent to authorized management stations. Host Name will be represented in popular Router Operating Systems registration screens and discovery tools.

Host Name: specifies the system identity.

Change button saves the Host Name if activated.

Administrative Account

Administrative Account

In this section you can modify the administrator password to protect your device from unauthorized configuration. The default administrator’s password should be changed on the very first system setup:

Administrator Username: specifies the name of the system user.
Current Password: administrator is required to enter a current password. It is required for Password or Administrator Username change routine.

Default administrator login credentials:

* User Name: ubnt
* Password: ubnt
New Password: new password used for administrator authentication should be specified.
Verify Password: new password should be re-entered to verify its accuracy.

Click Change button to save the changes.

Read-only Account

Read-only Account

In this section you can enable the read-only account, and configure the username and password to protect your device from unauthorized access. The default option is disabled.

Enable Read-Only Account: This option activates the read-only account.
Read-Only Username: specifies the name of the system user.
Password: new password used for read-only administrator authentication should be specified.

Interface Language

Interface Language, by default:English

AirOs supports multiple languages in the Web Management Interface.

Language options change the look and feel of the Web Management Interface while renaming the labels of all the configuration settings and controls according to the translation in particular language. The default language is English. The colors and the layout of all the web elements are not changed after the change of the language.

Language selection is saved by activating the Set as default button.

Additional language profiles may be uploaded. Please refer to this guide which describes how to import language profile used for translation of the user interface.

Logo Customization

Logo Customization

Use the controls in this section to configure custom logo on the device web management interface. The logo must conform to these limitations:

* The volume size of the logo is 50 Kilobytes or less;
* The maximum height of logo should be 70 pixels;
* Only .gif format images are accepted.

To upload new logo, enable logo customization and specify the location of logo file:

Enable Custom Logo: control will enable logo customization. If the Enable Custom Logo option is not selected the default Ubiquiti logo will be set/restored and the custom logo will be removed.
Logo Target URL: the target URL of custom logo can be specified in this field. Target URL is opened when clicking on custom logo.
Logo File: activate Browse' button to navigate to and select the logo file. The full path to the logo file stored locally can be specified there. Logo file is transferred to the system after Upload button is activated.
Default Logo

If the logo file maximum volume size (50 kilobytes) is exceeded the system performance issues may occur. Default logo dimension (in pixels) is 114 (width) X 53(height).

Configuration Management

Configuration Management

AirOS configuration is stored in plain text file. Use the Configuration Management section controls to backup, restore or update the system configuration file:

Backup Configuration: click Download button to download the current system configuration file.
Upload Configuration: click Browse button to navigate to and select the new configuration file or specify the full path to the configuration file location.

Activating the Upload button will transfer new configuration file to the system. The settings of the new configuration will be visible in the Link Setup, Network, Advanced, Services and System pages of the Web Management Interface.

New configuration will be effective after the Apply button is activated and system reboot cycle is completed. Previous system configuration is deleted after Apply button is activated. It is highly recommended to backup the system configuration before uploading the new configuration.

Use only configuration backups of the same type device - configuration backed up from PowerStation2 suits only PowerStation2, but not LiteStation2 or LiteStation5! Behavior may be unpredictable when mixing configurations from different type devices.

Device Maintenance

Device Maintenance

The controls in this section are dedicated for the device maintenance routines: rebooting, resetting, generating of the support information report.

Reboot: activate Reboot control in order to initiate full reboot cycle of the device. Reboot effect is the same as the hardware reboot which is similar to the power off - power on cycle. The system configuration is not modified after the reboot cycle completes. Any non-applied changes will be lost.
Reset to Defaults: activate Reset to Defaults control in order to initiate reset the device to factory defaults routine. Reset routine initiates system Reboot process (similar to the power off - power on cycle). The running system configuration will be deleted and the default system configuration (all the system settings with no exception) will be set.

After the Reset to Defaults routine is completed, AirOS system will return to the default IP configuration (192.168.1.20/255.255.255.0) and will start operating in Station-Bridge mode. It is highly recommended to backup the system configuration before the Reset to Defaults is initiated.

Support Info: activate Support Info button in order to get system information file. This file should be provided to Ubiquiti support engineers (upon the request) while investigating all the technical support or configuration issues if any.

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